"500 Years Later" is one of the most critical documentaries to date that accurately and with great insight, brings to light much of the real history of the African Holocaust that continues to haunt humanity to this day. If you have not seen this documentary I beg you to view it and share it with as many of your friends and family as possible. It will provide you with a very real since of being and belonging that can change your perspective on who you were, who you are and who you will become. It is a tribute to our "Living Legacy"...
In 711 AD, the Islamic Moors conquered Visigothic Christian Hispania. Under their leader, a general named Tariq ibn-Ziyad, they brought most of *Iberia under Islamic rule in an eight-year campaign. They moved northeast across the Pyrenees Mountains but were defeated at the Battle of Poitiers in 732 CE.
The Moorish state fell into civil conflict in the 750s. The Moors ruled in North Africa and in the Iberian peninsula for several decades, except for areas in the northwest and the largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees. Though the number of original "Moors" remained small, many native Iberian inhabitants converted to Islam. According to Ronald Segal, some 5.6 million of Iberia's 7 million inhabitants were Muslim by 1200 CE, virtually all of them native inhabitants. The persecution and forced conversion to Catholicism of the Muslim population during the time of the Christian Reconquista in the second part of the 15th century caused a mass exodus. This is considered the main reason why the number of Muslims had shrunk to a relatively small fraction of the total population by 1500.
In a process of decline, the Al Andalus had broken up into a number of Islamic-ruled fiefdoms, or taifas, which were partly consolidated under the Caliphate of Cordoba.
The Asturias, a small northwestern Christian Iberian kingdom, initiated the Reconquista (the "reconquest") soon after the Islamic conquest in the 8th century. Christian states based in the north and west slowly extended their power over the rest of Iberia. The Navarre, Galicia, León, Portugal, Aragón, Catalonia or Marca Hispanica, and Castile began a process of expansion and internal consolidation during the next several centuries under the flag of Reconquista.
In 1212, a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of Alfonso VIII of Castile drove the Muslims from Central Iberia. The Portuguese side of the Reconquista ended in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve (Arabic — Al-Gharb) under Afonso III, the first Portuguese monarch to claim the title King of Portugal and the Algarve.
However, the Moorish Kingdom of Granada continued for three more centuries in the southern Iberia. This kingdom is known in modern times for magnificent architectural works such as the Alhambra palace. On January 2, 1492, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada surrendered to armies of a recently united Christian Spain (after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, the Catholic Monarchs). The remaining Muslims and Jews were forced to leave Spain, or convert to Roman Catholic Christianity or be killed for not doing so. In 1480, Isabella and Ferdinand instituted the Inquisition in Spain, as one of many changes to the role of the church instituted by the monarchs. The Inquisition was aimed mostly at Jews and Muslims who had overtly converted to Christianity but were thought to be practicing their faiths secretly - called respectively marranos and moriscos. The Inquisition also attacked heretics who rejected Roman Catholic orthodoxy, including alumbras who practiced a personal mysticism or spiritualism. They represented a signficant portion of the peasants in some territories, such as Aragon, Valencia or Andalusia. In the years from 1609 to 1614, they were systematically expelled by the government. Henri Lapeyre has estimated that this affected 300,000 out of an estimated total of 8 million inhabitants of the peninsula. However many of them were converted to Christianism and settled permanently. This is clearly indicated by a "high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%)" that "attests to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants."
In the meantime, the tide of Islam had rolled not just to Iberia, but also eastward, through India, the Malayan peninsula, and Indonesia up to Mindanao. This was one of the major islands of an archipelago which the Spaniards had reached during their voyages westward from the New World. By 1521, the ships of Magellan and other Spanish explorers had reached that island archipelago, which they named Las Islas de Filipinas, after Philip II of Spain. In Mindanao, the Spaniards named the kris-bearing people as Moros or 'Moors'. Today in the Philippines, this ethnic group of people in Mindanao, who are generally Muslims, are called 'Moros'. This identification of Islamic people as Moros persists in the modern Spanish language spoken in Spain, and as Mouros in the modern Portuguese language. See Reconquista, and Maure.
According to historian Richard A. Fletcher, 'the number of Arabs who settled in Iberia was very small. "Moorish" Iberia does at least have the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers were Moors, i.e Berbers from Morocco.' Aline Angoustures says that the Berbers were about 900,000 and the Arabs about 90,000 in Iberia.
Edited content from Wikipedia
*The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern-day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar and a very small area of France.
Related Links: http://www.timbuktufoundation.org/missionvideo.php
ARE WE STILL AFRICANS IN AMERICA?
This is not a history lesson, but an assessment of a recent experience. Black, Colored, Negro, African-American…what’s in a name? I often correct people when they mispronounce my given name. It's important to me. It is my personal identifier and has been all my life. It's how I am connected to everyone who knows me on a business and above all personal level. Why is this so significant that it needs to be corrected when not phonetically clear? After all, I do know when someone is addressing me, even if they stumble over my name. I could reply as if all was fine with LuDell, Wendell, LynDell, or even BoDell, Yes, BoDell!
There is something at play here that we all should keep in mind. It’s called “principle”...a basic truth or law or a standard of good behavior. The significance of our integrity is called into question each time we allow our names to be spoken incorrectly. We have built our reputations on that name. Many of you probably agree with me on this (though that's not what I am looking for). Your mother (and father) gave you a name. It is like their first gift to you. Cherished, and loved we protect it, enjoy it and are deeply connected to it. Take this “principle” to another level of identification.
Let me begin by saying, I know we are all human. When reality does show up, we will all belong to the same tribe (the Human tribe, if you will). But we are not there yet and the world has already put labels on us all to detach us from our culture and heritage (and for other socio-economic and political reasons, most not positive in nature). Now that's out-of-the-way, let's talk about what it means to be identified not by your name but by race, the next level (or perhaps the first level) of identifying who you are. Are you Colored, Negro, Black or an African-American? Which do you prefer? What do you think would best represent you as a person? What fits your history, your family's history and culture? Try wrapping your mind around this thought. You don't have to agree with it, just consider it.
We are of the African Diaspora. Without a doubt, most (if not all) humans on the planet originated on the continent of Africa. Even National Geographic has confirmed this is recent years. Upon retrospect the terms (titles) Colored, Negro and Black, don't really reflect our history or original family culture. When you do your homework you will see that much of what Blacks in America reflect culturally can be traced to our African roots. I went to a Ladysmith Black Momboza concert a few years ago. As I listened to the harmonies of the wonderfully strong yet sensitive voices of my brothers from across the water I realized I was listening also to my mother, my father, my grandparents and great grandparents...all my people that I had listened to in a little wooden church I attended as a child. I sat there, closed my eyes and the voices became voices in the church of my people. I couldn't understand the African dialect but I did understand that for generations I heard those voices and now they were coming home to me from across the waters...from their origins. Wow! felt like I was witnessing the sun rising over an African Elephant in who's shadow I had been standing. I got it! I am a progeny of the African peoples...our spirits are coupled through generations and across oceans.
I am an African in American. My family and it's culture is distinctive to Africans in America. So, for me and perhaps for you, being identified properly is no longer a question. I am not Colored, not Negro, not Black...I’m almost African-American, but most definitely, I am an African in America.
Lydell A. Jackson
Black History Local Voices - Stephen Leonard
Read More History...Miseducation 101