Achoctaw1866@aol.com - (not sure if this is the author)
Halito! Greetings To All Whom These Blessings May Flow
Nationalism: A View From The End of the Trail of Tears 2011
Dr. Cornel West, a prominent and provocative democratic intellectual, who is also described as “The moral philosopher” by Chis Hedges (www.truthdig.com, May 16, 2011) certainly surprised a lot of people, evoking deep-seated feelings of emotion and overwhelming reaction to a documented blast circulating throughout the week, entitled;
“The Obama Deception: Why Cornel West Went Ballistic.” The article discussed West’s feelings of being betrayed by friend, President Barack Obama.
Hedges’ article unveiled compelling reasons Cornel West reached the conclusion that he had been used, after serving (65 times) as a headliner, big name draw and one of several recognizable figureheads in a skillful propaganda campaign staged to help pull masses of well-heeled humanity and hoi pol loi, to Candidate Barack Obama and the Democratic Machine’s promise of “Change We Can Believe In.
One look at the Professor’s Face Book Page, reveals that he is not alone in his gut-wrenching feelings of betrayal. What is perhaps different is his closeness, friendship, direct up-close and personal campaign aid and insider’s view of behind-the-scenes White House drama. Whether we agree or disagree with his sentiment, underestimating Cornel West’s effect may be a mistake. His own angst, candor, honesty of expression, ability to incite critical thought, loyalty of fan-base, celebrity influence and potential impact of pulling his support may have a dramatic affect upon, shape, erode or even chip away at Mr. Obama’s already waning political popularity, particularly among Democrats.
The Obama Administration’s disconnect with the strong anti-war and war-weary faction of Democratic voters who wanted and voted for change, is taking it‘s toll. So too, is the seeming callous disregard, baseless disrespect and particular distain for African Ancestored core supporters. I suggest that it would be a mistake to underestimate a people who can build nations, alters to the sun and moon, unravel the pernicious institution of slavery, build mounds, monolithic monuments and patiently study mystical political legerdemain in order to torpedo the best laid plans of the slickest carpetbaggers on earth.
After much soul-searching and consideration of incidents, including the disappointment of being left in a Hotel room without tickets (for himself or family members) on the occasion of Obama’s Inauguration, gave rise to feelings of foreboding in Professor West. There seemed no worthy excuse for the extremely poor treatment of a friend that worked tirelessly for the cause. Added to that was being “cussed out” by the President and called an “F***ing Retard“ by Rahm Emanuel. As written, the culmination of an expanding list of gripes led Professor West to essentially realize that he had been duped.
Presidential Friend disappointment aside, it is Professor Cornel West’s radio program commentary, or rather, statement made on a radio program that captures my attention. The statement attributed to him was on the subjects of Nationality and Nationalism.
A listener gave a written report on the show that said; Professor West “does not believe in nor favorably support any forms of Nationalism whatsoever.” Really. How interesting.
Nationality and Ancient Nationalism
The discussion involving Professor West’s perspective on Nationality caught me off guard.
What (I wondered) would compel an African Ancestored Intellectual to adopt this particular philosophy? I suspect that Dr. West would have gladly delved further into the reason he subscribes to such beliefs. Perhaps with more time, West might have conveyed the idea that as a descendant of Autochthonic Aboriginals, Indigenous Native-Africans, Creoles, Moorish Subjects of a Prince of Morocco or abducted Africans transported across the Atlantic to America against their will, was the reason he could not in good conscience support American Nationalism….
I get that…because it does not accurately reflect the true ancestral national origin of the afore-described peoples. After all, “What to the Slave is the 4th of July? [Frederick Douglas].
For that matter, American Nationalism was never really intended to be embraced by preexisting non-White people (of Indigenous Native-African origin) inhabiting the Aboriginal Country, outside the legal-geographical sphere of influence of American Colonies allowed to flourish by assorted treaties and land cessions obtained from Indigenous Nations (often times) by nefarious means.
Further, American (U.S.) Nationalism was not created, nor intended to cover persons whose ancestral origins lie beyond the conceptualized scope and enigmatic jurisdiction of the Colonial and post-Colonial American Law Society ideals, which remains the reason why persons of African Ancestry are compelled to continue to the present day (albeit ill-advised) to petition, beg, grovel and prostrate themselves for integrated equal rights and treatment.
It might have been refreshing to stimulate a discussion regarding the reasons why “African Americans” are so fearful of dwelling within their own particular National Law Society or System, where it would be completely unnecessary to beg for “equal rights”, inclusion and protection.
Of course all my thoughts on his reasoning are purely speculative and not reflective of what Dr. West actually said. I must say that I too, have been a guest on radio shows and know very well that there is never enough time to adequately or thoroughly explain any given thought, idea or issue covered pertaining to given subject matter brought up on Radio Shows and Presentations.
Program guests invariably regret not having been clearer on certain aspects of the conversation. Its the nature of the beast. The only thing to do is to remain proficient in your area of expertise.
I like to think that if Professor West shared the Indigenous origin and Nationality of Ethnic Native Americans of the 5 Civilized Tribes (as some of us do), or an African affinity, he might feel differently about nationalism as a concept, which is as ancient as the Holy Bible.
By the way, there are “West” surnamed families within the historical Nations of the 5 Civilized Tribes of Oklahoma. My own family contains a “West” contingent. The main branch related to my family members occupied the Jones, Oklahoma area. My family members inhabit Enid, Oklahoma.
A review on the major trends and transitions of Nationality demonstrates Nationalism’s ancient origins. The Bible identifies many Nations of antiquity and Nationals thereof; Babylon, Egypt Ethiopia (Hebrew name “Cush“), Germany (Hebrew name Ashkenaz), Greece, India (Persia), Israel, Lebanon, Libya, Syria (Damascus), Sudan, Malta, Phoenicia (Phoenicians founded an ancient city in Brazil named “Atlantida“) and others . It seems “Genesis” adhered (almost obsessively) to the concept of identifying the Nationality of significant persons of note.
Note 1: According to Genesis, Cush was also the name of the oldest son of Ham. “He was the eponymous ancestor of the people of Cush, a dark-skinned people inhabiting the country surrounding the river Gihon, identified in antiquity as Ethiopia.””
Note 2: The wife of Moses was a Cushite.
Note 3: “Atlantida” is the traditional name of an ancient city in the Amazon River valley founded by Phoenician explorers more than 4,000 years ago. The finds were made by Dr. Luis Bueno Horta Barbosa who was traveling with General Candido Rondon in late 1929. They discovered inscriptions carved on rocks rendered in hieroglyphics. Aside from rock formations the explorers recovered pottery inscribed with hieroglyphics along the Cumina River, in the state of Para, Brazil. Their work provided evidence that the Phoenicians traversed the Amazon River and established a city in South America. [References: “Phoenician Inscriptions In Amazon Valley Revives Belief That They Discovered America“, New York Times, January 5, 1930, pg. E2].
Note 4: Para, Brazil, the Capital of which is Belem, site of ancient Phoenician settlement. The word “Belem” is Portuguese for “Bethlehem.” Ancient “Luzia” and 33 members of her African Ancestored Tribe have been identified as the most ancient Native Aboriginals in the Americas. They are the indigenous mother culture of Brazil, 10,000+ miles south of the Bering Strait.
Note 5: Phoenicians: The name for Phoenicians living in Carthage, was Carthaginians.
Carthage was in North Africa. Carthage and African are the geographic or civic designations. Punic replaces Phoenician when referring to the Mediterranean.
Hannibal, leader of the Phoenicians was North African. He came from a Carthaginian family.
Nationalism May Be A Complex Concept For Descendants of Slaves To Grasp
West may have been retreating from reference to “Black Nationalism,” rendered equivalent to “Radicalism” by Whites, Black Bourgeoisie and the skittish Proletariat. Would he feel the same if provided proof that Black Nations (ergo, Nationalists) were Aboriginal Cultures of North America?
And further that their descendants (Nationals) were insistent upon connection with their roots?
Free men and Slaves are opposites. Sovereigns (rulers) and Tamenes (vassals) are of opposite stations. It may also be a true that their thoughts are different or developed differently. Sovereign thoughts tend to be complex, while Slave thoughts are more simplistic or naive. Therefore those unaccustomed to the idea of Sovereign Status, Autonomy or Ruling Nations without the aid of Whites may sincerely struggle with initiatives requiring them to arise as Rulers from a Nation that failed to nurture them humanely in perfect equality, as vassals. It’s the Nation system to which they’re bred. Remember that Sovereigns are Bred higher. Mentored and fully Apprenticed.
I find it helpful to remember that Harriet Tubman said that she would have freed a lot more Slaves, if only they realized they were Slaves. The Peculiar Institution’s Enslavement was the Stockholm syndrome “reality“ they grew up within. Some Slaves fretted and despaired when confronted with actual Freedom. Legions of Slaves found it difficult to leave Plantations at the end of the Civil War. They were scared to leave the routine, perceived safety of complacency and cooperation and false “security” of the only lifestyle they had known. Plantations were the birth place of generations of slaves. Perhaps in their mind, the steady routine of plantation life sustained them. Their hierarchy of meager needs (for the era) were met by the Slave owner in the quantities he decided (food, shelter and clothing). With Emancipation historic Slaves exchanged what they felt was stability, for the instability of Freedom without enfranchisement, money, food, land and basic provisions.
Even in modern times, it takes guts to stir a conquered and oppressed people to rise up from the paternalistic hegemony of a Nation that views itself as a successful Democracy, but has no real consciousness about the ill-effects of their oppressive arrogance upon subjugated, exploited “conquered people.” Only those imbued with “such as I have” can find the intestinal fortitude to walk away from colonial imperialism in order to stand as successors-in-interest in possession of our own National Trust, rejecting failed Guardianship, Stewardship and “Trustee Status.” Theirs has been a Nation that has never had our best interest in mind. Advocating for sovereignty is not for the faint of heart, neither is Separating, Breaking Away, Re-establishing and Reorganizing our own historical Nation, Territory, and Representative Government to benefit our own people, here.
Indigenous Nation, Nationalism, Nationalists
Ethnic Cherokee-Chickasaw-Choctaw-Creek and Seminoles Nations
“Nationality Is Essential”
The Inter-American Court of Human Rights affirmed the Human Right to Nationality, as it upheld the International Prohibition on Racial Discrimination in Access to Nationality. On October 7, 2005, The Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued a landmark decision “affirming the human right to nationality as the gateway to the equal enjoyment of all rights as civic members of a state.
The Court’s ruling in Dilcia Yean and Violeta Bosico v. Dominican Republic marks the first time that an international human rights tribunal has unequivocally upheld the international prohibition on racial discrimination in access to nationality. The Court ordered compensation for victims of arbitrary and discriminatory deprivation of nationality.” Perhaps Professor West was unaware?
The overall importance of the precedent-setting “concept” of the case, gives hope that it may be expanded to encompass the descendants of the original Ethnic Protectorate of the 5 Civilized Tribes, a special class of Native American Citizens and Nationals having African Ancestry born into the Tribes within the legal-geographical domain and sphere of influence of Indian Country, including the set-aside Indian Territory recognized and ratified by the U.S. Congress in 1834.
The special class of Native American Citizens having African Ancestry were removed as Indians, with Indians, as family of Indians, descendants of Indians and as property, possessions and chattel of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Nations.
As such, they were never U.S. Citizens, which is why they were forcefully removed from Colonies, Territories, and Townships particular to the legal-geographical domain of the United States.
Thus, the unique special class of Native American Citizens and Nationals having African Ancestry had their Citizenship, births, deaths, marriages, properties and court cases registered, recorded and recognized by the Nations of the 5 Civilized Tribes, and U.S. Federal Government. This Ethnic Class of Indian Citizen (“and their descendants”) were also legally recognized and represented in various Treaties between the United States and the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Nations, including the 1866 Treaties as Citizens and Nationals of African Ancestry.
The emancipated special class of Native American Citizens and Nationals having African Ancestry, regarded as “Freedmen” were surveyed by a Congressionally Authorized Tribunal known as the “Dawes Commission” from 1898 to 1907 (with additions added by court proceedings up to 1914). Their job was to compile a correct Census of the Citizens and Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes.
At their disposal were the individual Census and Citizenship Rolls of Each Tribal Nation kept by the Chief or Town Kings. Plus, the Special Tribunal was ordered to make a correct count of each Indian Citizen. They interviewed each and every Tribal Citizen, under the watchful eye of an Indian Full Blood particular to each tribe, who would either affirm, confirm, or deny the Citizenship Claims of every claimant, including Freedmen. Every person before the Tribunal was required to supply proof of historical connection, membership and affiliation with their Tribe. Each and every Tribal Member were provided notice to appear before the Tribunal on appointed dates and time or face fines and imprisonment for failure to appear. Many were afraid of the U.S. Government and did not want to participate, but they were forced to face the Tribunal. Each interview was recorded and documented, and forms the basis of collections stored by the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) at Dallas/Ft. Worth, Kansas City and satellite facilities in the U.S.
Our ancestors represent those that were recorded by the Chief or Tribe’s Census Rolls, as well as the massive Dawes Final Indian and Freedmen Citizenship Rolls, 1898-1907. Those with ceded lands and original patents to tribal lands held sufficient documentation to establish Tribal citizenship according to the Treaties, General Allotment Act and the U.S. Secretary of the Interior.
Of course, the Dawes Rolls and Land Patents are not the only documents establishing historical citizenship in the tribes. In addition to Census Records kept by the Chiefs and Town Kings (Micco, Minco), are Equity and annuity Rolls, Special Census Records, including those kept by the Southern Seminoles that left Oklahoma and settled along the border of Texas and Mexico, 1849-1850 (also known as Seminole Negro Scouts). There are citizenship rolls kept by the Mississippi Choctaw, the Mckennon Rolls (equivalent to Dawes, but not ratified), Dunn Rolls, etc
Proving Historic Tribal Citizenship is not necessarily our problem. What is our problem is that the special class of Native Americans having African Ancestry (aka, Freedmen, Indian Freedmen and certain African Americans) “are victims of arbitrary and discriminatory deprivation of nationality” on a much larger scale than the victims treated by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in 2005.
The modern problems of descendants particular to the emancipated special entitlement group of Native American Citizens having African Ancestry (aka, Freedmen, Indian Freedmen and certain African Americans) arises due to discriminatory programs, practices and codified language. enlisted to Federally Recognize “the modern” 5 Civilized Tribes in order to use “their historic Nationality” to benefit from Native American Reservation Economy Initiatives entered by President Nixon in the mid-1970s, and expanded in 1983 during President Ronald Reagan’s Administration. Accessing the Reservation Economy Initiative required historic Native American Tribes, like the nations of the 5 Civilized Tribes to reorganize and petition for a U.S. Charter of Recognition, which generated a monumental revisionist effort to whitewash the Tribal History of the 5 Civilized Tribes.
With the knowledge that the 1866 Treaties ceded millions of acres of Tribal Lands to the Freedmen (for their settlement), the driving force then behind the rise of the Native American Reservation Economy Initiatives through the late 1970s and 1980s with exclusion of Freedmen from claiming benefit is best described by the history notes of the Oklahoma Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association maintained by the Oklahoma Historical Society with the Oklahoma Petroleum Council, 1977; “The Greater Seminole oil field was one of several fields discovered in the mid-1920s that swung the United States’ oil inventory from scarcity to surplus.”
“Discovery of five prolific Seminole area oil pools in 1926 and 1927 glutted the market”
They “totaled 201,246,000 barrels by the start of 1977.”
Curiously, this also ushered in the period of “Petroleum Wars.” Americans were sweltering in Gas Station lines for hours suffering from a faux Government-induced shortage. Gas Station Attendants and Drivers were killed by hostile mobs of angry commuters as a result.
All of that was to distract the public from the fact that Indian Freedmen were on the verge of losing the remainder of their Tribal Citizenship and Nationality rights to shares of oil profits extracted from their Treaty-Mandated Ceded Tribal Domain, through the malevolent use of a U.S. Solicitor’s Official Opinion and advice to the Tribes about using a Congressional Law to exclude Freedmen from claiming Citizenship in the modern tribes, using Tribal Reorganization along racial lines (wherein only of “certain” lineal descendants of original Tribal Nation Citizens would receive U.S. Federal Recognition) and therefore benefit from their historic Nationality. All but Freedmen.
In efforts to attain U.S. Charters of Recognition by reorganizing under the Oklahoma Welfare Act of 1936 (expansion of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934), the 5 Civilized tribes petitioned the U.S. Justice Department‘s Solicitor asking for advice on how to treat their Freedmen in the reorganization process. The U.S. Solicitor used his 1942 “Official Opinion” to advise the Tribes that the Freedmen were enfranchised by Birthright, Citizenship, Adoption, Residency, Treaty Rights, including the right to share in certain Financial Disbursements intended for the entire tribe, but, that the Oklahoma Welfare Act gave the tribes authority to reorganize without their Freedmen.
Treaties can’t be changed so The U.S. Solicitor and the Tribes conspired to use the Congressionally Authorized Indian Reorganization Act of 1936 to construct Tribal Reorganization resulting in disenfranchisement, exile, widespread ruin and destruction of the lives of Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Freedmen Citizens and Nationals.
The U.S. Solicitor was a financially compensated Representative and Agent of the United States when he used his 1942 Official Opinion as a Platform to advise the 5 Civilized Tribes that the Congressional Indian Reorganization of 1936 authorized exclusionary reorganization of the 5 Civilized Tribes without Freedmen Citizens, which actually resulted in the loss of Freedmen Citizenship, Nationality and access to Treaty Rights. Effects, included disaffection, disenfranchisement, alienation, denial of access to all Treaty Mandated entitlements; Trust Funds, Ceded Lands and Protections, all Benefits of Citizenship and Nationality. Also lost were; Freedmen tribal assets (Schools, Churches, Missions and Burial Grounds), as well racial exclusion from progressive protections and benefits conferred under Congressional Acts, such as NAGPRA, Native American Religious Protection and Native American Arts and Crafts Act. Discriminatory language also prevents Indian Freedmen from equal benefit of their exclusive handcrafted arts and crafts. Freedmen lost benefit of meat, produce and goods from an excess of 7,000 Farms.
United States Government Guardians, Stewards and Trustees, did not aid Freedmen or provide professional support reorganizing separately as equal and opposite Tribal Nations to protect their 1866 Treaty Rights, or to counteract a Congressionally Enacted Law that stood to potentially discriminate against, negatively affect and harm the Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes solely (and in fact, did so). Nothing in the way of guidance in reorganization or efforts to maintain the integrity of their Treaty Rights was ever offered or provided to Freedmen by the 5 Civilized Tribes by the; Solicitor, Federal Trustees, Guardians, or Stewards.
Neither was aid or guidance given them to maintain Treaty Mandated Political Representation, Government to Government Relationships, Trust Fund Accounts, or Trust Land Management, which is by nature discriminatory and unequal.
Further, when Indian Freedmen Advocates (Black Indians United Legal Defense and Education Fund), attempted to enlist Congressman Tom Coburn to aid Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes in legally pursuing Provisions of Separation through Congress (as he had for the Shawnees in the year 2000), the Oklahoma Senator, a U.S. Congressmen refused to provide equal service to Freedmen. Coburn wrote that he no longer believed in the merits of Provisions of Separation, and Freedmen need ‘to challenge the validity of the 1866 Treaties.” (which was valid when he referenced them and used their historic boundaries within the body of the Congressional Shawnee document). Essentially, Coburn advocated denial of Congressional Assistance, adding delaying tactics requiring entry to costly lawsuits and bogging Freedmen down with diversionary busywork.
The negative affects to Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes and hostility towards them in the Southeastern Oklahoma Indian Nations and the Cherokee Outlet and Cherokee Strip devastated their Treaty-mandated Ceded Lands, Colonies, Districts and Townsites, caused most to send family members away to make money to support their progeny. Many went to California, becoming the first migrant field workers before inhabiting the large city centers in San Diego, Compton, Los Angeles, Hanford, Fresno, Sacramento, Oakland. Other re-inhabited the old historic Indian Country of the South, the area comprising the “Black Belt.“
Historic Ethnic Choctaws are of an old root of Calusa (Seminole-Choctaw) in Florida who are surmised to share a root connection with a culture from the La Venta area of Mexico and as far as the Mosquito (Misskito) Coast, though the majority of Choctaws hail from Alabama and Mississippi. Some mixed blood Choctaw-Cherokees and Choctaw-Creeks (called Alabama’s lived in small Family Bands within the Carolina Low Country). Allied French-Choctaw Bands under various names moved into Louisiana at a very early Colonial Period due to disagreement with English Polity. Many mixed Choctaw-Creeks lived in historic Georgia.
The segment of the Choctaw Nation in Mississippi refusing to leave home and relocate west to Oklahoma under the 1830 Indian Removal Act, were officially recognized separately from Choctaws in Oklahoma, as “Article 14 Claimants (Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, 1830).
They were Federally Recognized and identified in the 1940s as “The Mississippi Choctaw.”
This Tribal Nation Band were the first of the 5 Civilized Tribes to be conferred Dual Citizenship (U.S.-Choctaw). The State of Mississippi formed around them in 1830 upon removal of the majority of the Choctaw Nation. The remainder did not leave the ancient tribal domain. Mississippi Choctaws staunchly refused to renounce, relinquish or reject their Choctaw Citizenship or Nationality and had not voluntarily petitioned to be ruled by U.S. Citizenship or Naturalization.
The difficulty for the Ethnic Mississippi Choctaw enrolled by Commissioner McKennon was that the majority were of the phenotype particular to persons of “Native American-African” ancestry or claimed at least one ancestor of the same origin. Amid complaints of tainted enrollments, Congress refused to certify the Census. Sadly, the Ethnic Mississippi Choctaw Claimants were never notified of the nixed Federal Census and were thus refused certification of their McKennon Enrollments and Choctaw ancestry, which they found out after the close of the Dawes Rolls.
The late notification was strategic and a bit prodigious for the United States. McKennon’s Federal enrollment encampment for Ethnic Mississippi Choctaws had been situated at Hattiesburg, Mississippi, which was the home of Mary Elizabeth Joshua (Duncan), an Ethnic Choctaw and the Grandmother of Chief Edgar Allen Molette (Puhlki Hosh Binili Nita, “Running Bear“).
Mary Elizabeth Joshua’s father, Edward Joshua had been born on the reservation at Chunchula (Chunehula), a historic settlement of the ancient first Alabamians, the Tribe of Chief Tuscaloosa.
The Ethnic Choctaws were removed to Mississippi. The Chunchula Reservation is a Gas Field.
Mary Elizabeth Joshua’s mother, Isabella Winston Joshua was an Ethnic Creole.
Choctaws also have an ancient historical settlement known as Kushtushka (in the original Choctaw Language, “Kush Warrior”). The ancient name “Kush” harkens back to Ethiopia, and therefore a lovely phenotype of Blackness. In the Americas, “Ethiopian” was synonymous with “Black.” Tamenes an Ethiopian word among Choctaws in the Americas (referred to a class of Burden-bearers or Vassels in the tribe). It’s not a difficult stretch to imagine why the entire region (in De Soto’s era) was named and recognized as Tuscaloosa (an original Choctaw word meaning “Black Warrior” ). Tuscaloosa was also the name of the Great Chief in 1540. His Alabama region was where De Soto narratives states; they witnessed a canoe proficient “Indian emerge from the rushes “ Big as a Philistine, Black as an Ethiopian.”
Historic Hemispheric Ethnic Indigenous Nations: Predating European Colonization
1528-1536: Spanish Explorer (Narvaez) established Coastal Moorish Colonies among various Aboriginal Nations. His efforts are treated by American Historians as failed European Colonies for lack of European Settlers and are therefore rendered historically enigmatic and invisible. Credit is given instead by Europeans for his exploration effort.
However, another perspective emerges from the descendants of Ethnic Indigenous Inhabitants and Descendants of the Aboriginal Indian Country. The Narvaez Colonies were mixed Moorish/Native American settlements flourishing with Moors, Native Americans and their unique indigenous Creole Progeny within the jurisdiction of the aboriginal Native American domain.
The settlements became the birthplace of many important ancestors particular to Moors, Ethnic Natives of the 5 Civilized Tribes and their Creole Progeny. As such, the Moorish settlements of Florida are credited as historically successful Colonies by Moors, Ethnic Native Americans of the 5 Civilized Tribes, Nationals and their Historians (until destroyed by the United States).
1539-1540: Conquistador Hernando de Soto had fateful incursion with Chief Tuscaloosa at Choctaw Settlements at Maubila (Mobil) and Athahatchie, Alabama.
1559-1561: Don Tristan de Luna establishes yet another Moorish/Ethnic Indian and Creole Colony on the Florida-Alabama Coast. It is deemed a failed Colony by Europeans.
Mixed Moorish-Cherokee Settlements in the Carolina Low Country were at Santa Elena, Hatchetville, Black Tom Bay (noted historically in records as “Wassamasaw Swamp,“ *(Black Mingo Swamp), Sheep Island, Sandy Run. New Hope Township (part of Goose Creek) has been identified in historical records as both a Native American and “Negro“ Community.
Note: The word “Mingo” means “King” among the 5 Civilized Tribes (“Black King Swamp”).
Examples of Ethnic Native Settlement Repurposed As A Plantation:
Brasstown-Itse’yi (Properly Untsaiyi), means, Brass. Old Brass Settlement. A Cherokee Low County Settlement upon the Brasstown Creek of Tugaloo River, part of the Oconee, SC Domain. Large Domain, 2 Settlements. (See Plantations, Old Brass-Auld Brass). Historical documents relates that the Old Brass area was named for an old Cherokee half-blood (Cherokee-Negro), circa 1736 (49 years before the first Treaty with the U.S. Colonial Government was ever signed at Hopewell in 1785).
Native Settlements With Moorish Inhabitants
1. Coca (Ani’Ku’sa, Coosaw, Coosa or Creek): Ancient Cherokee-Creek Settlement. The De Soto Expedition left a Spanish Moor in this settlement: “We have forgotten to say that in this same pueblo of Coca there had remained a Negro named Robles, who was sick and unable to travel. He was a very good Christian and a good slave, and was entrusted to the cacique who very willingly and affectionately took upon himself the task of caring for and curing him. We have included an account of these details so that when God, our Lord, shall will that the country be conquered and won, an effort may be made to see whether some trace or memory remains of those who thus stayed among the native of that great kingdom.”
Citation: The De Soto Chronicles The Expedition of Hernando de Soto to North America in 1539-1543, by Lawrence A. Clayton, Vernon James Knight, Jr., and Edward C. Moore, Editors, p. 324;XXIII “The Cacique Coca, Offers His State To The Governor For An Establishment And Settlement, And How The Army Leaves That Province.”
2. Guaxule (also Chiaha, Cheehaw or Chee-Ha)-A town in Cherokee Country visited by De Soto in 1540. Moors left there: “We have said already that the governor and his army had left Xuala and marched five days through the uninhabited district that lies between it and Guaxule. It must be told (going back in our story) that on the same day they left the pueblo of Xuala they missed three slaves who had fled the night before. Two were Negroes, the servants of Captain Andres de. Vasconcelos de Silva, and the other was a Moor from Barbary, the slave of Don Carlos Enriquez, a gentleman from Xerez de Badajoz…”
Citation: The De Soto Chronicles The Expedition of Hernando de Soto to North America in 1539-1543, by Lawrence A. Clayton, Vernon James Knight, Jr., and Edward C. Moore, Editors, page 315; “What Happened To The Army Until It Reached Guaxule and Ychiaha.” Passage recounts Moors left in the province. Subject Guaxule and Ychiaha (Cheeha).
The Spanish Catholic Majesties, rulers of La Florida granted a Royal Proclamation (Enabling Act) to Pedro Menendez de Aviles, conferring legal power to establish a Crown Colony at St. Augustine (comprised of Seminoles, Africans and their Creole Progeny). The Creoles were of mixed Seminole and Africans ancestry. An additional Land Grant within the Spanish Crown Colony was provided directly to a Spanish-African Moor named Francisco Menéndez, a Mandingo from Africa, described as the nephew of St. Augustine’s founder, Pedro Menendez de Aviles.
The most famous of the Spanish Crown Colony and settlements established or inhabited by Seminoles, Africans and their Creole Progeny, are; St. Augustine (Established in 1565). Peliklakaha (Abraham’s Old Town) in 1690, A Fort, St. Augustine Castillo de San Marcos was established in 1733. In 1738, Gracia Reál de Santa Terésa de Mosé, (also Fort Mose) was established, also Fort Negro (later Fort Gadsen) and Abraham’s Sauanaffe Tustenuggee.
Ethnic (Black) Native Settlements Destroyed By The U.S. Military
The really interest thing here is that Seminole Freedmen were denied an equal share of interest in a Congressional Disbursement of more than $52 Million in compensation for historic Seminole Tribal Land losses in Florida expropriated by the United States.
The argument used by the United States to deny Freedmen an equal share of the Congressional repayment was that the Ethnic (Black) Seminoles did not own land or their own Settlements in Florida before 1823. As we have plainly seen that argument is shot down by consideration of Peliklakaha (archaeologically confirmed to been established in 1690). It was also called Abraham’s Old Town. The information was plainly accessible in historical military records, Florida History Books and Seminole Nation Historical Resources.
Seminole Freedmen were outrageously cheated of their equal share of a Congressional Appropriation. However, they too denied Seminole an equal share of Federal Money based upon the race, ethnicity, previous condition of servitude and U.S. induced historical disenfranchisement.
The errant legal decision against Freedmen Interests was rendered by Oklahoma Supreme Court Justice Vicki Myles LeGrange and adversely affected Sylvia Davis and the Seminole Freedmen. Davis is a Freedmen Band Chief in the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma.
None allege that Justice LeGrange’s ruling was of malicious intent. Overall Freedmen are victimized time and again in America’s courts for two very compelling reasons;
1. By America’s selective History as taught from a European perspective, without working knowledge of Freedmen History.
2. Withholding of accurate historical information pertaining to Ethnic Native American and historic Freedmen Settlements by Attorneys representing the United States, as well as those representing Freedmen.
Andrew Jackson destroyed Ethnic “Black” Indian Towns: In 1818, “After relieving the Fort, Jackson marched through northwest Florida and burned Red and Black Seminole towns in the Suwannee River region. He also burned Spanish fortifications at St. Marks on the Apalachee and seized Pensacola. “
In 1819-Ethnic (Black) Mikasukis and Black Alachua Indian maintained Settlements within the Territory of Florida. U.S. Military Records state; ““Bowleg’s Alachua’s, meanwhile, traveled about 120 miles south of their old location. Their principal town, Okihumpky, was just west of Lake Harris. The Alachua blacks stayed, as before, in separate villages near the tribe. Peliklakaha was their main community, and other black settlements were probably located farther west”
On March 26 General Jesup declared: “The negroes rule the Indians, and it is important that they should feel themselves secure; if they should become alarmed and hold out, the war will be renewed.
Pine Island-Located in Charlotte Harbor. On September 23, 1823, and observer wrote about one such colony of Black Seminole remote camps; “They are well armed and refuse to allow Americans to visit the island.”
Tokope keliga-Former home of John Cowaya (Also known as Gopher John, John Cavallo and John Horse). Black Seminoles left Florida, 1837-1842.
In 1763, 430 Black Seminoles fled to Havana, Cuba and other Spanish Colonies
It was not until the end of the American Revolution (post 1776) that Loyalists to England fled to Florida, bringing thousands of Slaves with them and establishing Plantation Culture.
When the Spanish/U.S. Treaty of 1819 took effect in 1821, Creoles (Indians with African Ancestry ) in Florida hoped to benefit from Article VI, which guaranteed freedom to Creoles; “The inhabitants of the territories which his Catholic Majesty cedes to the United States shall be…admitted to the enjoyment of all privileges, rights, and immunities of citizens of the United States."
The were sorely disappointed to learn that the U.S. Government named General Andrew Jackson military governor of the territory. Jackson's first decree nullified Article VI, denying U.S. citizenship to Seminole, black, and mixed-race indigenous (Creole) Floridians.
200 Ethnic (Black) Seminoles fled to Andros Island, Bahamas at the time of the turnover of domain. Today there are about 300 Ethnic (Black) Seminole descendants in the “Red Bays”” Community.
Nationality At The End Of The Day
The most important thing to remember is that Freedmen of the 5 Civilized Tribes never renounced their Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek or Seminole Citizenship and Nationality.
The word “Nationality,” according to the Encarta World English Dictionary means:
1. Citizenship of particular nation: the status of belonging to a specific nation by origin, birth or naturalization.
2. People forming a nation-state: a people with a common origin, tradition, and often language, who form or are capable of forming a nation-state.
3. Ethnic group within a larger entity: an ethnic group that is part of a larger entity such as a state.
4. Nationhood: political independence as a separate nation.
Note: Given the use of the active language “are capable of forming a nation-state” helps us to understand that nation-states may break-away, arise, or still be formed in any country, at any time: Example: Bosnia-Herzegovina (declared independence from Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia after democratic elections in 1992). Belarus (declared independence from Soviet Union in 1990. Established country in August, 1991, Completed in December, 1991) etc.
Lineal descendants of Sundry Moors of the Americas (Spanish, Berber, African) Ethnic Native Americans of Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Nations of African Ancestry and their unique mixed Native American-Moorish descents (Creoles) represent historical nations.
Each maintains sufficient documented evidence to substantiate claims to restore and recognize
1. Desire for political independence: the desire to achieve political independence, especially by a country under foreign control or by a people with a separate identity and culture but no state of their own.
2. Patriotism: proud loyalty and devotion to a nation.
3. Excessive devotion to nation: excessive or fanatical devotion to a nation and its interests, often associated with a belief that one country is superior to all others.
Use of the suffix (-ist) denotes somebody who practices a particular skill or profession, somebody who follows a particular belief or school of thought; somebody associated with a particular action or thing.
Therefore a Nationalist is somebody that follows, for instance, a belief, school of thought or desire for political independence and/or practices excessive devotion to an independent nation.
Perhaps Mr. West wouldn’t mind enlightening those interested in this topic, why he does not favorably support any forms of Nationalism whatsoever.“
Because Inquiring Minds Want To Know!